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Будильник / A-clock 2.4 — это не просто обычный и привычный будильник, это программа, которая наделена множеством полезных функций. Так, например, пользуясь данной программой, человек может осуществить запись с возможностью напоминания, и никогда не забудет о предстоящем важном деле или событии. Данная программа всегда вовремя оповестит вас о запланированном.
Если установить будильник на нужное время суток, то он начнет будить вас медленно и уверенно, наращивая свой звук от минимального до максимального. Такая функция будильника поможет вам проснуться спокойно, а не станет пугать резким спонтанным звуком обычного будильника. Еще одной немаловажной, а возможно и основной, функцией программы Будильник / A-clock 2.4 является то, что его можно установить с последующим выключением компьютера. Это понадобиться в тех случаях, когда вы ушли с рабочего места, а компьютер забыли выключить, если программа будет установлена заранее, то при срабатывании таймера, будильник сможет самостоятельно отключить компьютер.
Данная программа разработана таким образом, что не позволит вам проспать утром или опоздать на какую-либо важную встречу в вашей жизни. Все, что касается пунктуальности, объединилось в единое целое в лице программы Будильник / A-clock 2.4
часы (стенные, настольные, башенные) ;
like a clock пунктуально;
спорт. показать время;
11. 6 seconds for the 80 metres hurdles он показал время 11,6 секунды в барьерном беге на 80 метров
часы (стенные, настольные, башенные) ;
like a clock пунктуально;
he worked the clock round он проработал круглые сутки what o'Смотреть что такое "clock" в других словарях:
Clock — (kl[o^]k), n. [AS. clucge bell; akin to D. klok clock, bell, G. glocke, Dan. klokke, Sw. klocka, Icel. klukka bell, LL. clocca, cloca (whence F. cloche); al perh. of Celtic origin; cf. Ir. & Gael. clog bell, clock, W. cloch bell. Cf.
Clock — (englisch: Uhr) steht fur CLOCK, Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, Gensequenz Clock (Lied), 1997 von Coal Chamber Clock (Band), The Clock, Comicfigur The Clock (OT, 1945) US Film, dt: Urlaub fur die Liebe Clock (Restaurant), schwedische… … Deutsch Wikipedia
clock — [kl?k ? kl??k] verb clock in also clock on BrE phrasal verb [intransitive] to record on a special card the time you arrive at work or begin work: • I clock on at 8:30. clock off also … Financial and business terms
Clock — est un groupe de post rock en francais, originaire de Saint Etienne, il est forme depuis 2003. Sommaire 1 Composition 2 Historique 3 Influences 3.1 Litteraires … Wikipedia en Francais
clock — > NOUN 1) an instrument that measures and indicates the time by means of a dial or a digital display. 2) informal a measuring device resembling a clock, such as a speedometer. > VERB informal 1) attain or register (a specified time, distance, or… … English terms dictionary
clock — clock1 [klak] n. [ME clokke, orig. clock with bells < ML clocca, bell < Celt, as in OIr cloc (> OE clugge, OHG glocka), bell <. IE base * kel. to cry out, sound > CLAMOR] 1. a device used for measuring and indicating time,… … English World dictionary
Clock — (kl[o^]k), v. t. To ornament with figured work, as the side of a stocking. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Clock — Clock, v. t. & i. To call, as a hen. See
Clock — Clock, n. (Zo[ o]l.) A large beetle, esp. the European dung beetle (
clock — klak n BIOLOGICAL CLOCK * * * (klok) a device by which time may be measured … Medical dictionaryclock — s.m.inv. ES ingl. <
© 2003 by Charles C. Lin. All rights reserved.Background
When you buy a computer, one of the first things you probably look for is the speed of the computer. These days, it's not unusual to here rates as fast as 3 GHz.
But what is 3 Ghz referring to? This is referring to the clock rate.
The clock on a computer is not the same as the clock on the wall, which is used to tell time. A computer clock is more like a metronome, which keeps the beat for musicians to play music.A Plot of a Clock
One way to understand a clock is to look at a plot of its behavior.
A clock changes its value from 0 to 1 every period. We use the letter T to designate the period. This signal repeats over and over again. Perhaps you remember, from a course in calculus, about sine waves. This wave repeats once per period. The difference between a sine wave and a clock is that a sine wave is curved. It gradually increases than decreases.
A clock's signal is squarish in shape.
Related to the period of the clock is the frequency. Frequency is defined as 1/T. and has units of s -1.
When you hear clock rates, it's usually given by its frequencies. Thus, 2 Ghz means 2 x 10 9 cycles per second. A cycle is a signal for a single period. The period for this clock is 1/2 x 10 9 which is 5 x 10 -10 seconds, which is half a nanosecond, which is a really, really short period of time.
To give you an idea of how short this time is. Imagine that everyone in the world sang exactly one note, and exactly one person sings at a time. Suppose each note lasts one nanosecond. It would take 6 seconds to complete (assuming 6 billion people in the world).A More Realistic Clock
A clock can't really instantaneously go from 0 to 1 and back to 0. A more realistic diagram looks like:
As you can see the clock signal has a positive slope from 0 to 1 and a negative slope from 1 to 0. This slope has been exaggerated so you can see it better. Normally, it wouldn't be quite so angled.Features of a Clock
There are a few key features of a clock:
Each positive clock edge appears once per clock period. Each negative clock edge appears once per clock period.Is It Always 50-50?
In the clock diagrams above, the amount of time the clock is at 1 appears to be T/2 (i.e. half the period). The amount of time the clock is at 0 also appears to be T/2. (There is a little time when it transitions from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0, but let's assume this is a fairly small fraction of T ).
Must a clock always do this? The answer is no. We could have a clock where it stays 1 for 3T/4 (three quarters of a period) and 0 for T/4 (one quarter of a period), or any fraction x and T - x where x < T.
If you're only using the positive edge, then it doesn't matter how long the signal stays at 1 or 0, since you only use the edge. However, if you want to use both positive and negative edges, then you're going to have to consider when you want the edges to occur.A Simple Exercise
In order to get a feel for how a clock signal behaves, put your finger at the beginning of the clock signal in the diagram above. At this point, the signal should have a value of 0.
Begin to move your finger to the right, but trace out the signal. Your finger should move from 0 to 1, and back again.
If you happen to trace over the positive edge once a second, and you're steadily moving to the right (not going faster or slower) then the period is 1 second, and the frequency is 1 Hz.
Tracing the signal with your hand gives you a better "feel" for how a continuous signal behaves. Usually, computer science majors have a more difficult time with this (unless you really like calculus or are in engineering) because we deal with quantities that are discrete, rather than continuous.
At any point in time, someone can ask you the current value of the signal.
If we use the "pipe" analogy, we can think of this signal alternating between pumping red soda (for 0) and green soda (for 1).What's a Clock Used For?
We use a clock to synchronize the events of a CPU. Devices in a CPU can be categorized as sequential circuits or combinational circuits. Sequential logic devices use a clock. Basically, sequential logic devices can only change outputs once a period, usually during a positive or a negative edge. We'll assume that a sequential device can only change outputs on positive clock edges.
To give you an analogy, imagine a music conductor tapping a beat with a baton (a stick) at regular intervals. Suppose you are playing a piano, and you're told to play a new note each time he taps his baton. Thus, how fast the conductor taps the baton controls how often you play notes.
Similarly, the rate at which the positive clock edge appears controls how fast a sequential logic device can change outputs.
It turns out that by using a clock, we can design a CPU more easily than if we don't use a clock. This is primary reason to use a clock.Can't We Make It Faster?
If a CPU will run faster with a faster clock, then why not run it faster? The problem is that it takes time for signals to move around in a circuit. You can reduce this time in several ways. The main way is simply to make the circuit smaller. When the circuit is smaller, signals have less distance to travel, and therefore everything can happen more quickly.
A clock (from the Latin word cloca, meaning "bell") is an instrument for measuring time. In its most common form, in use since at least the fourteenth century, it displays the time in hours, minutes, and often seconds, during a 12 or 24 hour period.
A replica of an ancient Chinese incense clock.
The clock is one of the oldest human inventions, requiring a physical process that will proceed at a known rate and a way to gauge how long that process has run. As the seasons and the phases of the moon can be used to measure the passage of longer periods of time, shorter processes had to be used to measure off hours and minutes.Sundials and other techniques
Candles and sticks of incense that burn down at, approximately, predictable speeds have also been used to estimate the passing of time. In an hourglass, fine sand pours through a tiny hole at a constant rate and indicates a predetermined passage of an arbitrary period of time.Waterclocks
Vitruvius reported that the ancient Egyptians used a clepsydra, a time mechanism using flowing water. Herodotus had mentioned an ancient Egyptian time-keeping device that was based on mercury. By the ninth century C.E.. a mechanical timekeeper had been developed that lacked only an escapement mechanism. Later years saw the rise of automated water clocks in Arabia. China, and Korea .Early mechanical clocks
None of the first clocks survive from thirteenth century Europe, but various mentions in church records reveal some of the early history of the clock.
Medieval religious institutions required clocks to measure and indicate the passing of time because, for many centuries, daily prayer and work schedules had to be strictly regulated. This was done by various types of time-telling and recording devices, such as water clocks, sundials and marked candles, probably used in combination. Important times and durations were broadcast by bells, rung either by hand or by some mechanical device such as a falling weight or rotating beater.
The word horologia (from the Greek hora, hour, and legein, to tell) was used to describe all these devices, but the use of this word (still used in several romance languages) for all timekeepers conceals the true nature of the mechanisms. For example, there is a record that in 1176 Sens Cathedral installed a horologe but the mechanism used is unknown. In 1198, during a fire at the abbey of St Edmundsbury (now Bury St Edmunds), the monks "ran to the clock" to fetch water, indicating that their water clock had a reservoir large enough to help extinguish the occasional fire.
These early clocks may not have used hands or dials, but “told” the time with audible signals.A new mechanism
The word "clock" (from the Latin word for "bell"), which gradually supersedes "horologe," suggests that it was the sound of bells which also characterized the prototype mechanical clocks that appeared during the thirteenth century.
Between 1280 and 1320, there was an increase in the number of references to clocks and horologes in church records, and this probably indicates that a new type of clock mechanism had been devised. Existing clock mechanisms that used water power were being adapted to take their driving power from falling weights. This power was controlled by some form of oscillating mechanism, probably derived from existing bell-ringing or alarm devices. This controlled release of power—the escapement—marks the beginning of the true mechanical clock.
These mechanical clocks were intended for two main purposes: For signaling and notification (e.g. the timing of services and public events), and for modeling the solar system. The former purpose was administrative, the latter arose naturally given the scholarly interest in astronomy, science, astrology, and how these subjects integrated with the religious philosophy of the time. The astrolabe was used both by astronomers and astrologers, and it was natural to apply a clockwork drive to the rotating plate to produce a working model of the solar system.
Simple clocks intended mainly for notification were installed in towers, and did not always require dials or hands. They would have announced the canonical hours or intervals between set times of prayer. Canonical hours varied in length as the times of sunrise and sunset shifted. The more sophisticated astronomical clocks would have had moving dials or hands, and would have shown the time in various time systems, including Italian hours, canonical hours, and time as measured by astronomers at the time. Both styles of clock started acquiring extravagant features such as automata.
In 1283, a large clock was installed at Dunstable Priory; its location above the rood screen suggests that it was not a water clock. In 1292, Canterbury Cathedral installed a "great horloge." Over the next 30 years there are brief mentions of clocks at a number of ecclesiastical institutions in England, Italy, and France. In 1322, a new clock was installed in Norwich, an expensive replacement for an earlier clock installed in 1273. This had a large (2 meter) astronomical dial with automata and bells. The costs of the installation included the full-time employment of two technicians for two years.Early astronomical clocks
The clocks constructed by Richard of Wallingford in St Albans by 1336, and by Giovanni de'Dondi in Padua from 1348 to 1364, no longer exist, but detailed descriptions of their design and construction survive, and modern reproductions have been made. They illustrate how quickly the theory of the mechanical clock had been translated into practical constructions, and also that one of the many impulses to their development had been the desire of astronomers to investigate celestial phenomena.
Wallingford's clock had a large astrolabe-type dial, showing the sun, the moon's age, phase, and node, a star map, and possibly the planets. In addition, it had a wheel of fortune and an indicator of the state of the tide at London Bridge. Bells rang every hour, the number of strokes indicating the time.
Dondi's clock was a seven-sided construction, 1 meter high, with dials showing the time of day, including minutes, the motions of all the known planets, an automatic calendar of fixed and movable feasts, and an eclipse prediction hand rotating once every 18 years.
It is not known how accurate or reliable these clocks would have been. They were probably adjusted manually every day to compensate for errors caused by wear and imprecise manufacture.
The Salisbury Cathedral clock, built toward the end of the fourteenth century, is considered to be the oldest surviving mechanical clock in the world.Elements of the mechanical clock
These fourteenth century clocks show the four key elements common to all clocks in subsequent centuries, at least up to the digital age:
Clock makers developed their art in various ways. Building smaller clocks was a technical challenge, as was improving accuracy and reliability. Clocks could be impressive showpieces to demonstrate skilled craftsmanship, or less expensive, mass-produced items for domestic use. The escapement in particular was an important factor affecting the clock's accuracy, so many different mechanisms were tried.
Spring-driven clocks were developed during the fifteenth century, and this gave the clockmakers many new problems to solve, such as how to compensate for the changing power supplied as the spring unwound.
The first record of a minute hand on a clock is 1475, in the Almanus Manuscript of Brother Paul.
During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, clockmaking flourished, particularly in the metalworking towns of Nuremberg and Augsburg, and in France, Blois. Some of the more basic table clocks have only one time-keeping hand, with the dial between the hour markers being divided into four equal parts making the clocks readable to the nearest 15 minutes. Other clocks were exhibitions of craftsmanship and skill, incorporating astronomical indicators and musical movements. The cross-beat escapement was developed in 1585 by Jost Burgi, who also developed the remontoire. Burgi's accurate clocks helped Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler to observe astronomical events with much greater precision than before.
The first record of a second hand on a clock is about 1560, on a clock now in the Fremersdorf collection. However, this clock could not have been accurate, and the second hand was probably for indicating that the clock was working.
The next development in accuracy occurred after 1657, with the invention of the pendulum clock. Galileo had the idea to use a swinging bob to propel the motion of a time telling device earlier in the seventeenth century. Christiaan Huygens. however, is usually credited as the inventor. He determined the mathematical formula that related pendulum length to time (99.38 centimeters or 39.13 inches for the one second movement) and had the first pendulum-driven clock made. In 1670, the English clockmaker William Clement created the anchor escapement, an improvement over Huygens' crown escapement. Within just one generation, minute hands and then second hands were added.
A major stimulus to improving the accuracy and reliability of clocks was the importance of precise time-keeping for navigation. The position of a ship at sea could be determined with reasonable accuracy if a navigator could refer to a clock that lost or gained less than about 10 seconds per day. This clock could not contain a pendulum, which would be virtually useless on a rocking ship. Many European governments offered a large prize for anyone that could determine longitude accurately; for example, Great Britain offered 20,000 pounds, equivalent to millions of dollars today. The reward was eventually claimed in 1761 by John Harrison, who dedicated his life to improving the accuracy of his clocks. His H5 clock is reported to have lost less than 5 seconds over 10 days.
The excitement over the pendulum clock had attracted the attention of designers resulting in a proliferation of clock forms. Notably, the longcase clock (also known as the "grandfather clock") was created to house the pendulum and works. The English clockmaker William Clement is also credited with developing this form in 1670 or 1671. It was also at this time that clock cases began to be made of wood and clock faces to utilize enamel as well as hand-painted ceramics.
On November 17, 1797, Eli Terry received his first patent for a clock. Terry is known as the founder of the American clock-making industry.
Alexander Bain. Scottish clockmaker, patented the electric clock in 1840. The electric clock's mainspring is wound either with an electric motor or with an electro-magnet and armature. In 1841, he first patented the electromagnetic pendulum.
The development of electronics in the twentieth century led to clocks with no clockwork parts at all. Time in these cases is measured in several ways, such as by the vibration of a tuning fork, the behavior of quartz crystals, the decay of radioactive elements, or resonance of polycarbonates. Even mechanical clocks have since come to be largely powered by batteries, removing the need for winding.
Clocks can be classified by the type of time display, as well as by the method of timekeeping.
Очевидно, что начиная смотреть этот фильм в 14 лет, я не воодушевилась и после 20 минуты выключила и забыла о нем. Прошло пять лет и я осмелилась все же ознакомится, и знаете? Это исключительно яркое и вкусное смысловое кино!
Силища необузданная, как будто окунули в холодную воду. Как бы не промахнуться в громких словах, но фильм того заслуживает. Он вызывает шквал острых мыслей, поток ассоциаций.
С моей интерпретации, главная идея заключается в том, что если человека лишить выбора, насильно заставить быть добрым или злым, «насильно» в том аспекте, что он берет и сам себя слепо бросает в эту волну «ай, да прокатит!». Удивительно, как страшна бывает «свобода выбора», как легко попасть не в ту колею. Она может оказаться невозвратимой, стремительно ведущей к ужасным последствиям. Позже человек осознает весь этот дерьмо-ход жизни, а повернуть нельзя, его несет, невозможно сказать «стоп». Дальнейшие движения сковывают, возвращают к отпечатанным в памяти грехам. Заведенная возня в тошнотной жирной массе.
Последнее время часто слышу глупейший вопрос от людей, слегка царапнутых событием жизни: «Почему я?»
Герой фильма ответ-отражение ужасного и неудачного «свободного выбора» молодых людей современного общества, которые ходят по краю. Искалеченные легкомыслием, потерянные в том «неопределенном безумии» вопроса: За что, почему и как все это началось?
Вот ты один. На тебя смотрят сальным взглядом кишащие полчища людей и с дикостью ждут следующего шага. Нелепо, как беспомощный жук, которого поймали глупые жестокие дети, человек будет вертеться в моменте, не осознавая, что происходит.
Картина удивительно ясна, правдоподобна, жестока, как само реальное восприятие падения нравственности, как уверенный и вызывающий прыжок ребенка наполненного амбициями, который не смотрит под ноги, в сторону болота, гнили. И когда вокруг полно людей, но они так и трясутся над мыслью о том, что испачкаются, пострадают, или еще страшнее, что он потянет их за собой.
Музыка, операторская работа, игра безупречны. Нет надобности расплываться в словах. Актеры сыграли завораживающе, нельзя ничего дорисовать или стереть, все целостно. Не хочется брать лупу и рассматривать с критичной стороны, это невозможно. Профессиональная работа.
Clock 21 - Snap Together Clock
Clock 21 really is intended to be snapped together, it has been design be to be cut out from a single sheet of MDF 4 mm thick and 600 mm x 400 mm in size with a CNC laser or CNC router.
The design has been a collaboration with Loughborough University and Woodenclocks to produce a clock design suitable for use in STEM projects within schools to encourage an interest in Engineering. To see more of Teaching resources available at the University go here http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/mechman/clocks/
The starting requirement was for a clock that could be built simply and within a very short time frame so that it could fit into a schools timetable. It also required that it could be made with limited resources and at a minimum cost. The University had already done some work with an escapement mechanism which used Laser cut 4 mm MDF for the parts and a novel shaft design that could be snapped together.
Woodenclocks contribution was to redesign Clock so that it could be made from 4 mm MDF, and simplify the frame construction so that the whole clock could be snapped together. To ensure that the clock would be simple to assemble several novel features have been incorporated.
1 - Firstly the snap together design required quite a few iterations of the clips used to hold the parts together and now the finished clock is quite rigid despite being made from 4 mm MDF. This rigidity will depend to a large part to the setting on your CNC laser, if the fit is too tight the parts won’t go together and if too loose then some parts will move during the operation of the clock, and stop it working. To ensure that doesn't happen its probably best for you to take a couple of the snapping parts and do some test runs with your settings for the laser offsets. The setting we used are given in the instructions. To be sure nothing important moves its best to glue all the upper brackets that fit to the back frame in place.
2 - The weight used for this clock is unusual in that it is a simple 500 cc drinks bottle with a holder secured in place by the bottle cap. This CNC cut holder has notches so that a loop of cord can be easily attached and detached if needed.
3 - The lock used for holding the Pendulum on the shaft is again cut from the MDF sheet and has a slight spring fit onto the Pendulum Rod to hold it in place, simply push on this lock to ease its fit and allow the Pendulum Bob to be moved up or down to speed up or slow down the clock.
4 - Finally the simple wedges that lock the front frame in place
Its intended use for schools should not deflect from the fact that any one with a CNC laser or CNC routercan use this design to build the clock. The current design can be modified endlessly by yourself to build something quite unique. you can change the form of the parts and the materials and the finishes used to create something quite different.
You only need to keep the gear teeth, diameters and the gear spacing the same as this one, the rest is up to you.
If you are looking for a simple design for a first time project that can be completed in a couple of days, then this is it.
You can view the Detail drawings of the clock and the renders showing in detail the construction of the clock. The free files are restricted and are not suitable for actually making the clock with but all the drawings and renders along with the DXF and DWG files for using with CNC machining can be purchased from the download page.
Update! The files for clock 21 have been updated to include cutting profiles for use with a CNC router. It is worth noting that the original laser cut design actually sealed the cut faces whilst cutting. If you are going to CNC router cut the parts, I found it best to clean up the edges with fine sandpaper and the use Liquid Super glue to seal the teeth and the pallets
Drawings for this clock in PDF format can be downloaded here, These free files are restricted so that you can only view them on screen but not print them. Clicking to the left here will download the PDF file directly to your browser. may take a few moments so please be patient.
A sample from the DXF/DWG files is shown when you Roll Over the arrow .The actual files purchased above are included on one large sheet so that they may be directly loaded into your CAM program
To print only a single item of the drawing to scale using Adobe Acrobat Reader, do the following
Go to Edit then click on Take a snapshot
Move the cursor to the top left of the item you want to print and hold down the left mouse button whilst you drag a box around the item. The inside of the box turns blue and you can now go to File and then click on Print. This brings up the print dialogue, make sure Selected graphic is selected and that the Page scaling is set to None and the click on OK. As long as your printer is connected you will have printed the item at size.Do this for each item you want to cut out.
This information is provided 'as is'. Readers should only attempt to build this design if they are competent at electronics assembly and understand the dangers of mains voltages. No responsibility is accepted for any damage, injury or death (however serious) or disruption of the space-time continuum caused by anything remotely connected to this website.
A professional double-sided, through plated PCB is now available for this design - Please see here for more details. Please note that I cannot supply ready-built boards or clocks. If the idea of building your own scares you, check Logic Applied, Neontime Sphere Cosmodog wps Cathode Corner Dodocus Karlsson (click on 'living'). mapsevoli. nixieclock.net for ready-made ones or kits.
This design uses no exotic or obsolete components other than the nixie tubes themselves. It was designed to be very compact, and does not use a mains transformer, allowing it to be built into a nice small case. It's designed for 230v (220-240V) mains operation, but can be modified for 115v (110-120V), and can be configured for 50 or 60Hz supplies.
Component cost should be well under UKЈ10/US$15 (excluding nixies). If it costs you much more, you're shopping in the wrong place!
The artwork for a PCB design can be downloaded, which can be built either 'flat' (above centre image), or cut in two and 'folded' (above right) to make a very compact unit. An additional version is available which comprises 2 stacked boards under the tubes (see pics at the bottom of the page).
To avoid the need for unsightly buttons on the case (and the need to isolate the mains voltage from the user), reed switches are used for the time-setting function, these being operated by holding a magnet against the case, near the appropriate switch. (Any excuse to get some more glass bits on the PCB. )Circuit description
Click Here for .PDF file of the circuit schematic (39K). This should print legibly at A4 (Letter) size.
If you don't care how it works, skip this section, but please don't, as you may learn something.
The circuit uses CMOS 4017 counters to divide the 50Hz (or 60Hz) mains frequency down to 1Hz, and also to generate the 1-of-10 drive signals to drive the tubes. The high-voltage driver stages use readily available low-cost MPSA42 transistors. IC drivers (like the TTL 74141) were not used for reasons of cost, availability and power consumption.
The 230V mains supply is rectified to produce an unsmoothed +340V peak-to-peak supply for the nixie tubes. Smoothing is not required as the 100Hz flicker will not be visible, it reduces the avarage power dissipation in the anode resistors R5-8, and avoids the need for a physically large capacitor. For 115V operation, a voltage-doubler is required, producing a fairly smooth +250VDC supply. The low-voltage supply for the CMOS ICs is derived from a resistor/zener dropper R1/2 and D1. (2 resistors are used to avoid exceeding the resistors' voltage rating). One or two NE-2 lamps provide a flashing dot or colon indicator. You could alternatively use the decimal point of the 'hours' nixie, but you will probably need to connect it via R3 to match the digit brightness, and you may find that the brightness of the hours digit fluctuates slightly as the dot switches on and off.
The 50Hz signal is current-limited by R11/12, and buffered by U8B, which is just being used as a buffer stage to buffer the high-impedance 50/60Hz signal for use by the fast-set switch. U8B's CMOS input static-protection diodes clamp the voltage to the supply rails. C5 filters out fast mains transients and noise. C2/R10 and D5 reset the hours count to '1' when it reaches '13'. R9 allows the 'minutes' clock signal to be overridden by the time set buttons. R13 and C6 form a low-pass filter to reduce the effect of switch-bounce on the slow-set switch.
Note the different connection of the hours tube to U1, as hours count from 1 to 12, whereas the minutes count from 0 to 59.
As the circuit is not isolated from the mains, it is ESSENTIAL to use an isolating transformer if you need to connect an instrument such as an oscilloscope. As the circuit draws only a small current, you can easily make a suitable isolating transformer using two identical (i.e. same secondary voltage) small low-voltage mains transformers with the secondaries connected together. When connected via an isolating transformer, you can earth the 0V signal ground line. Remember that there will still be dangerous voltages on the board!
Information is provided here to make your own PCB for this design. The design can be built as a single PCB, or the tube section can be seperated to make a compact unit with the electronics vertically mounted behind the tubes. The main part of the board can also be seperated and hard-wired to tubes with different pinouts to the ones I used.
The display part of the PCB is designed for the tubes I had available, which are fairly standard size 'generic' ones with no maker's name. I have subsequently found that ITT GNP-17A and Hivac XN11 tubes have the same pinout as the ones I used. They have 12 pins (0-9, point, anode). Some nixies have 13 pins - the extra electrode is a 'primer', used to maintain ionisation to avoid flicker on multiplexed displays. This electrode is not necessary in this application and can be left unconnected. The PCB component layout drawing has the pinouts of the tubes I used marked.
The leads of wire-ended tubes with different pinouts can usually be pre-formed to fit the PCB, but you won't be able to seat the tube hard against the PCB. For tubes with solid pins, you'll probably need to either make up your own display PCB section, or hardwire them with or without sockets. See later for a hint on making DIY sockets.
The PCB is single-sided, and was designed to be very compact, and therefore has a rather high track density, so it needs to be made very carefully. See here for lots of info on making good-quality homebrew PCBs.
Pcb data files for download
(PCB files corrected 31/10/99 - 60Hz link goes to pin 5, was pin 6 on old PCB)
Component layout drawing. nxlayout.pdf (192K).
PCB artwork (x1, view from component side, so print side faces copper).
nixpcb.pdf (87K) PDF format - ensure 'fit to page' is off when printing. you may need to scroll to bottom of page to see image.
nixgrb.zip (10K) Zipped Gerber photoplot file (embedded apertures)
Alternative version - PCB is cut at a different point so both PCBs end up the same size, to allow PCBs to be stacked underneath tubes - see images at bottom of page. Component layout drawing nixlay2.pdf (192K) PCB artwork nix2pcb.pdf (90K)
nixdxfs.zip (51K) Zipped DXF files of both versions of the PCB. Note that the quality of DXF-Import in many software packages is poor, so you may have problems with line-widths & pad shapes. Use the PDF if you can.
Email if you need a different file format & I'll see what I can do.
The PCB artwork must be printed at a resolution of at least 600dpi. Check the printout for accurate size using the dimensions printed outside the board area. If you can't get a sufficiently good quality printout with your printer, print the PDF file using a Postscript printer driver, configured to print to a file, and take this file to a typesetting beaurau (look under 'desktop publishing services' in the Yellow Pages) and ask for a positive film - this should cost about UKЈ5 (US$8), and will produce an excellent quality transparency for UV exposure.
Drill sizes are all 0.8mm except D4 (1.0mm), and the holes for the mains input (1.2mm or to suit cable). If building the 'folded' version, drill the interconnect pins to 1.0mm and use a standard 0.025" square-post header strip.
All the parts for this design (apart from the nixies) can be obtained from any normal component suppliers including Maplin. RS. Farnell and many others worldwide.
See here for a list of possible nixie sources and pinout information.Parts list
Parts marked * are for 115V doubler version only, parts marked + for 230V version (or 115V via transformer).
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