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A *scientific calculator* is a type of electronic calculator. usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science (especially physics ), engineering. and mathematics. They have almost completely replaced slide rule s in almost all traditional applications, and are widely used in both education and professional settings.

In certain contexts such as higher education, scientific calculators have been superseded by graphing calculator s, which offer a superset of scientific calculator functionality along with the ability to graph input data and write and store programs for the device. There is also some overlap with the financial calculator market.

Modern scientific calculators generally have many more features than a standard four or five-function calculator, and the feature set differs between manufacturers and models; however, the defining features of a scientific calculator include:

* Scientific notation for calculating large numbers

* floating point arithmetic

* logarithm ic functions, using both base 10 and base e

* trigonometry functions (some including hyperbolic trigonometry )

* exponent s and root s beyond the square root

*quick access to constants such as pi and e

In addition, high-end scientific calculators will include such features as

* hexadecimal. binary. and octal calculations, including basic Boolean math

* complex number s

* fraction s

* statistics and probability calculations

*programmability

*equation solving

While most scientific models have traditionally used a single-line display similar to traditional pocket calculators, many of them have at the very least more digits (10 to 12), sometimes with extra digits for the floating point exponent. A few have multi-line displays, with some recent models from Texas Instruments and Casio using dot matrix displays similar to those found on graphing calculator s.

Scientific calculators are used widely in any situation where quick access to certain mathematical functions is needed, especially those such as trigonometric functions that were once traditionally looked up in tables; they are also used in situations requiring back-of-the-envelope calculations of very large numbers, as in some aspects of astronomy. physics. and chemistry .

They are very often required for math classes from the junior high school level through college, and are generally either permitted or required on many standardized test s covering math and science subjects; as a result, many are sold into educational markets to cover this demand, and some high-end models include features making it easier to translate the problem on a textbook page into calculator input, from allowing explicit operator precedence using parentheses to providing a method for the user to enter an entire problem in as it is written on the page using simple formatting tools.

The first scientific calculator that included all of the basic features above was the programmable Hewlett-Packard HP-9100A, [ *[ http://www.hpmuseum.org/hp9100.htm HP-9100A/B at hpmuseum.org ]* ] released in 1968, though the Wang LOCI-2 and the Mathatronics Mathatron had some features later identified with scientific calculator designs. The HP-9100 series was built entirely from discrete transistor logic with no integrated circuit s, and was one of the first uses of the CORDIC algorithm for trigonometric computation in a personal computing device, as well as the first calculator based on reverse Polish notation entry. HP became closely identified with RPN calculators from then on, and even today some of their high-end calculators (particularly the long-lived HP-12C financial calculator and the HP-48 series of graphing calculators) still offer RPN as their default input mode due to having garnered a very large cult following.

Texas Instruments. after the introduction of several units with logarithm/exponent capability, came out with the first modern handheld scientific calculator in 1974 in the form of the SR-50. [ *[ http://datamath.org/SCI/WEDGE/sr-50.htm SR-50 page at datamath.org ]* ] TI continues to be a major player in the calculator market, with their long-running TI-30 series being one of the most widely used scientific calculators in classrooms.

Casio and Sharp have also been major players, with Casio's FX series (beginning with the Casio FX-1 in 1972 [ *[ http://www.oldcalculatormuseum.com/casiofx1.html Casio FX-1 Desktop Scientific Calculator ]* ] ) being a very common mass-market brand used particularly in schools. Casio is also the #3 player in the graphing calculator market, having been the first company to ship one ( Casio fx-7000G ), but has long been outstripped by TI and HP.

*External links*

* [*http://www.oldcalculatormuseum.com The Old Calculator Web Museum* ]

* [*http://calculators.torensma.net Programmable calculators* ] – Specifications and descriptions of many programmable and scientific calculators

* [*http://www.hpmuseum.org The Museum of HP Calculators* ]

* [*http://www.datamath.org Datamath.org, a Texas Instruments handheld calculator museum* ]

* [*http://javascript.internet.com/math-related/16-function-scientific-calcula.html Javascript calculator program with source code* ]

* [*http://www.rk86.com/frolov/ Soviet Calculators Collection* ]

This is a *formula calculator*. __Enter your expressions in the same order as you would write them on paper__. Then press '=' to display the result.

*e*. The constant e*i*. The imaginary unit (See Complex Numbers for more information)*pi*. The constant PI (&pi)

*ln*. Natural Logarithm (base e)*log*. Logarithm base 10

*abs*. The absolute value*ans*. The result of a previous expression*gcd*. Greatest Commmon Divisor (see GCD )*int*. The integer portion of a number (see INT )*lcm*. Least common multiple (See LCM for more info)*rand*. Returns a random number between 0 and 1 (see rand and how to use the random function for information on how to use this function)*round*. Rounds a number to its closest integer (See round for examples)*sqrt*. Square root

This calculator allows you to *define your own functions to use in expressions* . To define a function type type it in this format: <function name>(<arguments separated by commas>)=<body>. Example: area(x,y)=x*y .

*Keyboard shortcuts (Alt or Cmd):*

__C__lear__E__quals__H__istory (previous)__D__isplay (cycle)- Decimal
__m__ixed display - Decimal
__S__cientific display - Decimal En
__g__ineering display __B__inary display__O__ctal display- He
__x__display - Last
__A__nswer

Enter an expression into the tan bar and press enter to calculate the results.

This calculator remembers up to twenty past calculations in history. To save the history between visits you must have cookies enabled.

All results are calculated using the Javascript eval() function. Syntax for expressions is the same as that for Javascript.

This calculator can handle input numbers in several different bases:

- Decimal (Base 10): Numbers that do not start with a zero like 15 or 3.14e15. Decimal numbers can contain digits 0-9, decimals, and scientific notation.
- Hexadecimal (Base 16): Integers that start with a zero x like 0x1a5. Hexadecimal numbers can contain digits 0-9 and a-f (or A-F) but no decimal or scientific notation.
- Octal (Base 8): Integers that start with a zero like 073. Octal numbers can contain digits 0-7 but no decimal or scientific notation.
- Binary (Base 2): Integers that start with a zero b like 0b101. Binary numbers can contain digits 0 and 1 but no decimal or scientific notation.

^ is a bitwise xor operation. To raise a number to a power use pow() function.

Popup Calculator Bookmarklet - Open the calculator anytime by dragging this Javascript link to your bookmarks/favorites or by right clicking on it and bookmarking/adding to favorites.

Pop up this calculator from your web page, just copy this code:

This program is free software;you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation;either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

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In the display window of the calculator below you write the complete mathematical expressions before calculation. This feature is very handy, especially when working with long complicated formulas. The values and expressions can be typed by using either keyboard or calculator buttons and the expressions can be reused and modified by accessing the history tab.

Note that the calculator relies on the syntax of javascript. The constants and the syntax for the mathematical functions are explained below.

*abs(a). the absolute value of a**acos(a). arc cosine of a**asin(a). arc sine of a**atan(a). arc tangent of a**atan2(a,b). arc tangent of a/b**ceil(a). integer closest to a and not less than a**cos(a). cosine of a**exp(a). exponent of a**floor(a). integer closest to and not greater than a**log(a). log of a base e**max(a,b). the maximum of a and b**min(a,b). the minimum of a and b**pow(a,b). a to the power b**random(). pseudorandom number in the range 0 to 1**round(a). integer closest to a**sin(a). sine of a**sqrt(a). square root of a**tan(a). tangent of a*

Some simple expressions:

*2 3 = pow(2,3) = 8**log(3) = 1.099**2 * (3 + 2) = 10*

A more complicated formula for calculating the pressure drop in compressed air pipe lines (using same values as the link )

*dp = 7.57 q 1.85 L 10 4 / d 5 p = 7.57 * pow(10,1.85) * 100e4 / (pow(52.501,5) * 7) = 0.19*

*Note* that the expressions can be written in any editor and transferred to the calculator display by using "copy and paste".

This calculator can handle input numbers in several different bases:

- Decimal (Base 10): Numbers that do not start with a zero like 15 or 3.14e15. Decimal numbers can contain digits 0-9, decimals, and scientific notation.
- Hexadecimal (Base 16): Integers that start with a zero x like 0x1a5. Hexadecimal numbers can contain digits 0-9 and a-f (or A-F) but no decimal or scientific notation.
- Octal (Base 8): Integers that start with a zero like 073. Octal numbers can contain digits 0-7 but no decimal or scientific notation.
- Binary (Base 2): Integers that start with a zero b like 0b101. Binary numbers can contain digits 0 and 1 but no decimal or scientific notation.

^ is a bitwise xor operation. To raise a number to a power use pow() function.

"*This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.*

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. "

eCalc is a free and easy to use scientific calculator that supports many advanced features including unit conversion, equation solving, and even complex-number math. eCalc is offered as both a free online calculator and as a downloadable calculator.

Algebraic input mode is commonly referred to as "infix notation" and is widely used by most handheld calculators. Expressions entered in algebraic input mode are done in a manner that closely resembles the natural form of the expression and the order of the operations is determined by operator precedence and parenthesis.

RPN, which stands for Reverse Polish notation, is a stack-based notation where operators are designed to follow their operands. For example, to evaluate the expression "1 + 2" in RPN, the user is required to enter "1 2 +" and the expression is evaluated immediately after the operator. Expressions that contain parenthesis, such as "(1+2)*3", are evaluated by noting the precedence order and entering the form as "1 2 + 3 *".

The online calculator supports data entry through either a graphical button or through the use of traditional computer keyboard keys. The user is given the option to use either input method and both are equally valid; however, there are some trigonometric function (as noted below) that are limited to computer keyboard entry only since there is a limited amount of space available for graphical button placements.

The stack is a feature of the calculator that provides a way to view a history of results. The stack displays only 4 items at once, but one can scroll up and down the stack by clicking on the up and down arrow above the stack. Values in the stack can also be "popped" down into the input field of the calculator by clicking on the down arrows to the left of the line in the stack.

The calculator is divided into two sections the scientific calculator interface on the left and the calculator pallet on the right. The pallet provides a display area for special features. Some of these features include: Unit Converter, Constants Library, Equation solver, Polynomial Solver, Base Conversion, and Decimal to Fraction Conversion.

The addition (sum function) is used by clicking on the "+" button or using the keyboard. The function results in a+b.

The subtraction (minus function) is used by clicking on the "-" button or using the keyboard. The function results in a-b.

The multiplication (times function) is used by clicking on the "x" button or using the keyboard "*" key. The function results in a*b.

The division (divide function) is used by clicking on the "/" button or using the keyboard "/" key. The function results in a/b.

The sign key (negative key) is used by clicking on the "(-)" button. The function results in -1*x.

The square function is used by clicking on the "x^2" button or type "^2". The function results in x*x.

The square root function is used by clicking on the "x" button or type "sqrt()". This function represents x^.5 where the result squared is equal to x.

The raise to the power (y raised to the x function) is used by clicking on the "y^x" button or type "^".

The natural exponential (e raised to the x) is used by clicking on the "e^x" button or type "exp()". The result is e (2.71828. ) raised to x.

In order to type an expression you can either use your keyboard or the on-screen buttons. The expression is processed as you type, and hence there's no need for an equals sign.

The result is always shown below the expression. It is shown with 10 significant figures, if necessary. If your expression cannot be calculated an error message is displayed instead of the reault.

As you press or click on Enter, the operation ends up in the log, to the right, and the expression input field is cleared. You can use Ans to refer to the previous answer, and Prev to step back trough earlier expressions. You can also use the up/down arrows on your keyboard to step throught the expression history (and Shift+up/down for the answer history). Next to each log element is are two small buttons. They let you go back to that very operation without needing to step through the entire history: to go back to the expression, och to insert the answer into the current expression.

Below the calculator you can set the angle unit, and whether or not the calculator should receive keyboard input. "Insert at cursor" makes the input through the on-screen buttons be inserted at the current cursor position. This also lets you select part of the expression and add functions surrounding the selection. This option is not available in Internet Explorer.

The calculator is very robust in terms of expression syntax. You don't have to write out multiplication signs and zeroes that are obvious. For instance. 2(7+4)pi is interpreted as 0.2*(7+4)*pi. The operator symbols are:

Данное приложение представляет собой полнофункциональный научный калькулятор с поддержкой графиков, матриц, комплексных чисел, решением уравнений и конвертором величин. Приложение позволит пользователю выполнить практически любые операции с числами и функциями на своем android гаджете.

Режимы работы приложения:

- Базовый режим.
- Научный калькулятор.
- Hex, Oct, Bin (режим программиста).
- Графики.
- Матрицы.
- Комплексные числа.
- Быстрые формулы.
- Конвертер.
- Калькулятор времени.
- Решение уравнений.
- Периодическая таблица элементов.

Переходы между режимами программы, помимо обращений к меню "Еще", могут осуществляться жестами горизонтальной прокрутки вправо либо влево. Проверьте в настройках положения соответствующего флажка. Факт переключения отмечается слабой вибрацией устройства.

Возможно редактирование показателей на дисплее. Двойное нажатие с удержанием на дисплее включает режим правки, повтор данного жеста – выключает. От символа к символу курсор перемещается нажатием с удержанием на совмещенных кнопках "Левая скобка/Правая стрелка" и "Правая скобка/Левая стрелка".

По кнопке "Информация", размещенной в заголовке любого режима работы калькулятора, открывается руководство пользователя со справкой по программе, описанием сорока пяти законов физики, даются некоторые математические формулы, таблица логарифмов и антилогарифмов, выражения элементарной алгебры, формулы тригонометрических тождеств, преобразователь ASCII и так далее.

В режиме конвертора можно вычислить соотношение по двадцать одной категории величин: расстояние, объем, вес, время, курс валют (требуется интернет) и прочее.

В режиме "Время" кроме всего есть секундомер, таймер, время городов мира.

Что нового в данной версии программы:

- Added percentages (%) to the Molecular Weight Calculator.
- Bug fixes.

Платформа: android 1.6+

Язык интерфейса: русский и другие

Here are 5 *Best free Online scientific calculator*. All these *online scientific calculator* are completely free, and you do not need to download or install anything to use it. Some of these calculators provide additional features as compared to others, so explore all of them to see which works best for you.

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eCalc online scientific calculator is one of the most feature rich online scientific calculator that I have come across. It has a nice interface. The website has ads, but they do not hinder your work. It provides scientific functions, algebraic operating mode, linear equation solver, root equation solver, history of your calculations, decimal to fraction converter, complex number with polar format or rectangular format.

eCalc also comes with an expandable sidebar that lets you do quick unit conversion, provides values of some common constants, and convert BASE. This sidebar itself makes eCalc the best scientific calculator in this list.

Web2.0Calc is another free web based scientific calculator. Web2.0Calc provides lot of similar mathematical functions as eCalc. A major advantage of Web2.0Calc is that it lets you plot graphs as well. You can provide an equation that you want to be plotted on graph. You can plot up to 4 graphs at a time.

Apart from that, Web2.0Calc also shows history of the calculations that you have done, and you can quickly pick any calculation from the history.

HRW has a nice scientific calculator online. It does not provides additional features as compared to eCalc or Web2.0calc, but it has a really nice and big interface. The calculator spans the entire screen, and there isn’t even any ad on the page. If you have a problem working with the interface of smaller online scientific calculators, this would be like godsend to you. It also comes with Memory Recall functions, and you can buttons like “M+”, “M-“, “MR”, and “MC” to work with calculator’s memory. These work a lot like physical calculators.

Check out HRW online scientific calculator here .

PiCalc provides another feature rich free online scientific calculator. The interface is surprisingly small, but it does has some useful functions. First of all, it lets you define values of some variables, and then use them in your calculations. Like, you can define values for “A” and “B”, and create a calculation like “A*B”. This is a pretty neat feature. Apart from this, it provides a full function list for Trignometric functions, basic functions, Logarithm functions, exponent functions, and more. The best part is that you can click on any function in the list to directly use in your calculation.